Медицинское образование и профессиональное развитие № 2 (46) 2022

Medical Education and Professional Development

Medical Teachers? Community Journal

TThe Journal serves to consolidate medical teachers: it addresses the issues of practical teaching at the medical and pharmaceutical Universities and colleges, tracing the most progressive trends emerging in the fields of training modes and proficiency assessment to develop effective teaching and learning.

The Journal is expected to publish the translations of some most valuable articles from the foreign journals and books on the medical education, and in particular such journals like Medical Education, Medical Teacher etc.


Topic number
2 . 2022
Simulation technologies

THE EFFECTIVENESS AND IMPACT OF ADDITIONAL SIMULATION CLASSES FOR THE PURPOSE OF MAINTAINING THE PROPER SKILL LEVEL OF MEASURING BLOOD PRESSURE

Abstract

Aim – ​to assess the impact of additional simulation classes on the correct re-performance of measuring blood pressure skill among 3-year «General medicine» students.

Material and methods. The analysis included n=64 «General medicine» students of the 3d year, who had an examination question of measuring blood pressure during the «propaedeutics of internal diseases» exam (the question was «Speak out the sequence of actions when measuring blood pressure at the primary outpatient appointment»). During the exam, students orally answered the theoretical foundations of the manipulation with further reproduction of the algorithm to measure blood pressure in accordance with the approved checklist, containing 50 points (specific actions). The voiced items of the checklist were evaluated with 1 point with the unvoiced items scored 0. The result was calculated as a percentage of the completed points. During the summer productive practice, after an additional short training incorporated the simulation equipment for mastering the skill of non-invasive method of blood pressure measurement, the study-recruited students were asked to reproduce the skill of measuring blood pressure in simulated conditions using a simulator for measuring blood pressure with wireless control and a tablet-controller BT-CEAB 2 (South Korea). In parallel with the execution of the skill, a checklist was filled in for each student and the results were calculated in the same way as described above. During the student’s answer, the examiner noted the voiced (1 point) and unvoiced (0 points) items in pre-printed checklist. Then the completed scores were summed up and for each subject, the percentage of competed checklist items from the maximum (from 50 points) was calculated.

Results. According to the exam results, the mean score for measuring blood pressure was 72.9%. The number of students who correctly completed 70% or more of the checklist items was 33% (n=21). None has completed all the items of the checklist, i. e., scored 100%. After additional training at the simulation center, the mean score for measuring blood pressure was 72%. Threshold of 70% (skill passing criterion) was reached by 61% of students (n=39). It should be noted that every fourth student completed all the items of the checklist (25%, n=16). All items of the checklist were divided by the authors into critical affecting the prognosis and non-critical. The number of students who completed all the critical points (100%) was 30% (n=19). Finally, 70% of the checklist items were correctly completed by the majority of 63% (n=40).

Conclusion. Based on our results, the impact of conducting additional classes for mastering blood pressure measurement among medical students is crucial, due to the majority of medical students were able to comprehensively master that skill within the academic year. The results of differential analysis in blood pressure measurement with identifying critical and non-critical skills, dictates the need to amend the current accreditation scheme with highlighting some checklist items significantly affecting the prognosis and outcome of the patient’s treatment i. e., non-completion of those items should result in performance failure of the accreditation station. Alternatively, the introduction of a less categorical assessment system with the coefficient determination of each checklist item(s), which will be a more objective approach for examining the manual skills of students as well as create a more structured assessment of knowledge.

LITERATURE REVIEW OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR TRAINING CUTANEOUS SURGICAL SKILL

Abstract

The aimto analyze the current literature for the comparison of skin suture stimulators.

Material and methods. Literature research of the PubMed, MEDLINE databases and relevant journals and reference lists was conducted in September, 2021. For up-to-date search of the information on the types of simulators for training skin suture skills, the following queries were used: «skin suture simulator», «plastic surgery training», «basic surgical skills», «simulation training», «surgical skills training». The period of inclusion of articles – ​from 2000 to 2021. Based on the results of the search, 257 full-text articles were analyzed and 60 of them are included in the current review.

Conclusion. The results of the randomized controlled trials confirm the lack of influence of the realism of the skin suture simulator on the development of motor skills. Models with low cost and reusability have advantages. The absence of sanitary and epidemiological restrictions when working with simulators increases the accessibility of training. The possibility of repeated use, low cost and the absence of sanitary and epidemiological restrictions give an advantage to synthetic models over courses on cadaver or organic simulators. The functionality of the simulator should be designed to develop the skills of plastic surgery.

Educational Technologies

GUIDE ON DEVELOPING MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (MCQS) FOR HIGH STAKES CLINICAL EXAMS

Abstract

The goal of this guide is to help faculty members, authors and everyone engaged in developing exams for medical specialists, whose aim is the reliable and valid assessment. This guide contains recommendations, their clarification, examples and most common flaws, and they may help novice authors to develop Multiple Choice Questions. We hope that this guide will be useful training aid for every medical teacher.

PECULIARITIES OF THE FORMATION OF THE SYNDROME OF EMOTIONAL BURNOUT STUDENTS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THEIR PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT

Abstract

High academic loads characteristic of professional medical education in combination with professional employment can create prerequisites for the formation of emotional burnout syndrome. A study conducted among 1055 medical students showed that every tenth student combines work with academic activities and the relevance of professional activity, the employment of students increases 3.6 times with the course of study, and also the number of professionally employed students in the medical field increases 2.1 times. The severity of the burnout syndrome from the initial grades of working students to the senior courses progresses higher in working students and decreases in non-working students. In the formation of the syndrome of emotional burnout, namely the phase of resistance and exhaustion in non-working students, the organization of the educational process presumably plays a significant role, and in working students, the progression of the stress phase is due to professional work experience. The data obtained make it possible to determine possible ways to prevent the development of the syndrome-emotional burnout in medical students.

MEDICAL GRADUATE ABOUT DISTANCE LEARNING: READINESS FOR A NEW EDUCATIONAL FORMAT

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study on assessment of some professional skills building in medical university graduates. This work was aimed at elaboration of scientifically sound proposals to adjust existing curriculum for training future doctors to distance learning mode. In a voluntary anonymous survey conducted in spring 2020 total 252 graduates of the Moscow State Medical University named after A.I. Evdokimov medical faculty assessed their own confidence in possession of certain professional skills. The skills associated with correct filling out of medical forms received the lowest rating. The group of respondents with higher self-confidence believed that all the skills assessed could be acquired remotely, with the exception of fitting time frames for a patient’s appointment. Thus, the problems of distance learning at a medical university have retained their relevance in the 2021/2022 academic year. The online education system has undergone significant changes, including priority provision on the need for effective feedback that allows the student to obtain necessary information particularly on adjusting his own educational route and learning criteria.

EXPERIENCE OF USING THE EDUSCRUM TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN MEDICAL UNIVERSITY POST-GRADUATES

Abstract

The urgency of this research is caused by the problem of considerable changes in medical education in pandemic period, necessity of combining classical and innovative practice-oriented technologies.

The aim of this article is to analyze the experience of using the eduScrum techniques in the educational process in post-graduates of Medical University.

The key research method was a psychological and pedagogical experiment on the eduScrum application, as well as testing and questionnaire methods, statistical processing of quantitative results of the research.

The study proved the efficiency of the eduScrum techniques in post-graduates. Successful grasping of universal, professional, metasubject competencies takes place. The еduScrum contributes to formation of professionally significant personality traits and «soft skills» (communicative skills, teamwork skills, creativity, critical thinking, and etc.), growth of motivation, interest and involvement in the pedagogical process.

The materials of the article can be of use for the higher-education teaching personnel to improve the learning efficiency and the quality of future medical teachers’ and healthcare professionals’ training.

Professional Development

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONCEPT OF AN ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY IN CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION

Abstract

The article describes the Russian industry problems of the transformation of the continuous medical education and the price competition associated with it, which leads to changes of the structure of the demand and decrease in the quality of educational programs on the market. The role of universities not only as developers of educational programs and providers of educational services, but also as a guarantor of quality medical education is considered. The opportunities of practical implementation of the concept of an entrepreneurial university in continuing medical education are discussed. The authors propose strategies that allow medical universities to maintain a qualitatively high level of educational services for medical professionals, while achieving the financial results of the university.

Aims and objectives. To analyze the market of continuing medical education, to evaluate the opportunities of implementing the concept of an entrepreneurial university in the environment, to develop strategies to increase the competitiveness of university continuing medical education.

Material and methods. In the study, methods of system analysis, document analysis, observation, and in-depth interview were used. The analysis of normative legal acts, data of the unified medical portal is carried out https://edu.rosminzdrav.ru. The main stakeholders of the continuous medical education market are described. The analysis and segmentation of the target audience were carried out on the basis of internal statistics of students of the faculty, as well as in-depth interviews.

Results. Typical strategies of educational service providers and the possibilities of their improvement in the context of reference marketing strategies are considered. A product offer matrix is proposed, which allows to justify the cost of services and expands the boundaries of development. It is shown what role «entrepreneurial universities» can play in the development and improvement of medical education. The role of the university and its main difference from commercial structures is to work with all audience in order to subsequently influence the structure of demand and the formation of commitment among medical professionals to high quality educational programs.

Conclusion. The effectiveness of the implemented changes depends not only on the consciousness and responsibility of all participants in the process, but also on the timeliness of feedback, as well as rapid response to new challenges of our time. Maintaining high quality standards of education requires a strategy of sustainable growth, the strategy of an entrepreneurial university is relevant for additional medical university education.

ANALYSIS OF THE NEEDS OF MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS IN EMPLOYEES WITH THE COMPETENCE TO USE END-TO-END DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES

Abstract

Introduction. The formation of the digital economy and digital society are global trends of the modern era that are becoming part of the global ecosystem. The transition to a digital economy is significantly changing the labor market: along with the spread of information technology in all areas of life, digital skills are becoming critical from the point of view of employers.

Material and methods. The survey of 92 state organizations healthcare, interview guide, 3 deep interview, analysis of the results of the survey and expert opinion on the needs and requirements of employers in the formation of digital competencies among graduates of the master’s program in the field of study 32.04.01 «Public Health» were carried out.

Results and discussion. As a result of the analysis of the results, the need for the healthcare industry in modern specialists with digital competencies and skills in using end-to-end digital technologies in their practical activities was identified.

Conclusion. In order to provide health care with qualified personnel in accordance with the needs of the labor market, it is recommended that when developing and updating master’s educational programs in the field of study 32.04.01 «Public Health», it is recommended to take into account the need to develop digital competencies.

CREATION OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENTIFIC GROUP OF STUDENTS AS A WAY TO DEVELOP THE HUMAN POTENTIAL OF THE UNIVERSITY

Abstract

This work examines the experience of creating an interdisciplinary scientific group of students of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Rostov State Medical University» of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation within the framework of the project «Study of compounds with suspected antitumor pharmacological activity based on organotin compounds» on the basis of the youth scientific group of the Department of «Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology».

The purpose is to analyze the experience of creating and the results of working an interdisciplinary scientific group of students (I–VI courses of educational programs 31.05.01 «Medical business», residency and postgraduate studies) in order to optimize selecting of students in an interdisciplinary scientific group.

Material and methods. The main methods of forming an interdisciplinary scientific group of students and the results of a correspondence survey of members of the youth scientific group of the Department of «Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology» are displayed. The result of processing questionnaires is the estimating of percentages between different answer options. The assessment of the strength of the relationship between the risk factor and the outcome was determined using conjugacy tables.

Results. The experience of creating an interdisciplinary research group and working there on the basis of the youth scientific group of the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology had showed that the socio-professional plans of students are closely related to the intensity of work as part of a productive research team. Postgraduate studies, doctoral studies and subsequent work as a teaching activity at a university are considered as a desirable prospect for most members of a small research group. The formation of interdisciplinary research groups will make it possible in the long term to cover the growing needs for rejuvenation of the university professional staff.

Conclusion. There were formulated the algorithm of selecting students for an interdisciplinary research group and the advantages of comprehensive long-term training of students as a personnel reserve of the university teaching staff.

Experience

ADVANTAGES OF USING REMOTE PLATFORMS FOR PROBLEM-ORIENTED LEARNING

Abstract

This article is a reflection of the experience of distance learning in basic medical disciplines using active learning methods.

The aim of the work is to introduce the principles of problem-based learning and its application as a new method on distance learning platforms.

The high quality of education, the desire to achieve goals, creativity, willingness to solve communication problems are real requirements in modern life. Therefore, the medical university is responsible for the quality of training and the formation of general educational, basic, professional competencies among young specialists.

Since distance education is becoming an integral part of higher education, information, communication and computer technologies expand opportunities for obtaining high-quality knowledge and competencies.

EXPERIENCE IN TEACHING HUMAN ANATOMY AT THE KAZAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY UNDER ANTI-EPIDEMIC COVID 19 RESTRICTIONS

Abstract

The COVID‑19 pandemic has created serious problems for medical education, which, at the legislative level in the Russian Federation, was only possible in person. In the spring semester of the 2019/2020 academic year, teaching human anatomy at the Kazan State Medical University was almost completely transferred to distance learning. Starting from the fall semester of the 2020/2021 academic year and up to the present, teaching is conducted in a mixed (offline and online) forms. The department has developed and implemented distance learning courses of lectures and practical classes for students of all faculties, online classes are actively used in the Zoom application. Questioning of students showed that 92% of students rate the distance learning courses developed by the department as «very useful» or «useful». An analysis of students’ creative essays and an expert survey of teachers revealed the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning «Human Anatomy». Our results indicate that distance lecture courses can effectively replace face-to-face lectures. However, the practical skills acquired by students in the course of contact training with natural anatomical preparations are much more difficult to replace with distance learning. Thus, the teaching of practical classes in the discipline «human anatomy» using remote methods is a forced, temporary measure.

STIMULATION OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM ON FACULTY PEDIATRICS

Abstract

Problem based learning in the pedagogy of medical education is widely discussed and recognized as an active approach to learning.

The aim is to find methods for stimulating the cognitive activity of students in the educational process in the classroom for faculty pediatrics.

Material and methods. The experience of using online platforms in practical classes for 4th-year students of the pediatric faculty is presented. The operation of the AMRbook and AMRmap online platforms can be found on the AMRhub website.

Results and discussion. The examples describe some of the functionality of online platforms when choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in children with community-acquired urinary tract infections. Separate elements of the analysis of the possibilities of online platforms are supplemented with explanations and drawings. When analyzing the content of the practical lesson, it was found that it is carried out in the form of modeling specific professional situations. Training is carried out according to the given parameters with the creation of any variant of the situation. It creates the possibility of unlimited repetition of the necessary technique, as well as the development of individual and group style of work.

Conclusion. Pedagogical techniques of practice-oriented learning, which form the basis of professional competence, must be included in the educational process of medical education.

CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Balkizov Zalim Zamirovich
Professor of the Department of Professional Education and Educational Technologies, Associate Professor of the Department of Hospital Surgery of the N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, member of the Coordinating Council for Personnel Policy of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Adviser to the President of the National Medical Chamber, Executive Secretary of the Commission for Accreditation of Continuing Medical Education Events in the National Medical Chamber, Secretary General of the Russian Society of Medical Specialists General Representative of the Association for Medical Education in Europe, General Director of GEOTAR-Med
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